Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 6

and evolved for millions of years, only
two species, Bartonella bacilliformis
and Bartonella quintana, were
identified worldwide before 1990.
The bacterium is carried primarily
by vectors such as fleas, ticks, sand
flies, and lice, though spiders, bed
bugs and deer keds (deer flies) can
carry Bartonella as well.
Numerous species of Bartonella
are reported in dog infections, yet
the most common ones found in
North America are B. hensalae, B.
vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B.
koehlerae - all of which have been
detected in dogs diagnosed with endocarditis.
Notably, B. hensalae is the
pathogen that is transmitted to cats
via fleas that can cause cat scratch
disease in humans when an infected
cat licks, bites or scratches open skin.
A challenge in treating dogs with
bartonellosis is diagnosing the illness.
" There is no diagnostic gold standard
for Bartonella infection in dogs, " says
Dr. Breitschwerdt. " Diagnosis relies
on a combination of culture, blood
and molecular tests with poor, variable
or undetermined sensitivity.
Epidemiological studies are based
on indirect fluorescent antibody
and blood PCR assays, but the lack
of sensitivity of these tests should
be considered by researchers trying
to define Bartonella disease, transmission
and zoonotic risks. "
In a retrospective study of 90 dogs
diagnosed with HSA published in
June 2021 in Pathogens, the research
team at North Carolina State University
evaluated six assays and
found Bartonella DNA or antibodies
in 70 dogs, about 78 percent.
" In our head-to-head comparisons
of serology and molecular test
results, we found that Bartonella
species DNA could be detected from
PCR-amplified fresh frozen tissues
The best protection for dogs against
the pathogenic Bartonella bacteria is
practicing regular flea and tick prevention
to ward off these common vectors.
" Minimizing or eliminating flea and
geographical area, " he says, noting that year-round
prevention is recommended.
Here are types of flea and tick preventives available:
tick exposure is more important today
than ever before, " says Dr. Edward B. Breitschwerdt of
the Emerging and Infectious Diseases research program
at North Carolina State University.
A plethora of preventive products is available,
including coat sprays, shampoos, powders, combs,
collars, natural and holistic choices, and house/yard
treatments. " The safety of these products for mammals
is very strong, " Dr. Breitschwerdt says. " The active
ingredients target the nervous system of insects and
anthropods, which differ greatly from those of dogs
and humans. "
Dr. Breitschwerdt recommends consulting with
your veterinarian to determine the best flea and
tick preventive for your dog. " Your veterinarian will
know which products are safe for breeding dogs,
as well as which products are best for a particular
* Spot-On Preventives: A liquid application, spot-on
preventives are applied to a dog's skin at specific
areas to spread out via skin oils in a thin layer over
the dog's whole-body skin surface. Periodic applications,
usually monthly, are required. These products
vary in their water-resistant properties.
* Oral Preventives: Given as a chew or tablet at
various intervals depending on the product, oral
preventives are absorbed into a dog's bloodstream,
quickly settling into the fatty tissue under the skin
to protect a dog from flea and tick bites. These
preventives are not affected by water.
* Flea & Tick Collars: The principle of the latest
generation flea and tick collars is the same as spot-on
treatments, but collars release small amounts of
a preventive formula over time. A single collar
may last up to eight months. These collars may be
water-resistant, but it is usually recommended to
remove collars before swimming or bathing.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787158/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787158/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308881/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308881/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308881/

Poodle Update - Summer 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Poodle Update - Summer 2022

Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - Cover
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 2
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 3
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 4
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 5
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 6
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 7
Poodle Update - Summer 2022 - 8